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Terms & Commands

Terms

Hardware

Term Definition
Operating System (OS) The piece of software which controls your CPU, and which you run applications on (e.g. Windows).
Central Processing Unit (CPU) The brain of the computer, which controls other components.
Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) Controls graphics (what you see). Can be integrated into the CPU, or on a seperate card
Random Access Memory (RAM) Temporary storage for the CPU.
Power Supply Unit (PSU) Converts the electricity from the wall into the right form, to be used in the computer.
Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) A connector for expansion cards and more.
PCI Express (PCIe) The successor of PCI, used on modern systems.
Keyboard and Mouse (KB/M) The device which you type on, and the device which you move the cursor with.
Hertz (Hz) The frequency at which something operates (cycles per second).
Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) A battery backup system that allows a system to run for a period of time after main power loss. These also provide “clean” power, preventing damage from unstable or dirty power. They are highly recommended for anyone who experiences frequent brown outs.

Software

Term Definition
Personal Computer (PC) A computer used for personal use.
WINE A tool for running Windows applications on Linux/MacOS/BSD.
PlayOnLinux (PoL) A tool that makes WINE easier to use.
Linux Distribution (Distro) A version of the Linux operating system that is packaged with other components (e.g. Ubuntu).
Linux Desktop Environment (DE) A collection of components which make up the GUI for Linux operating systems.
Super Key The “Windows Key” but in Linux-speak
Teletype (TTY) Terminal / console / text-only session
Basic Input Output System (BIOS) Motherboard firmware that describes how the hardware should function and which operating system to boot.
[Unified] Extensible Firmware Interface ([U]EFI) A type of BIOS used on newer computers.

Malware

Term Definition
Malware Malicious software.
Virus A type of malware that spreads itself to infect more computers.
Trojan A type of malware that misleads users into thinking that it is a legitimate program. Named after the Greek Trojan horse.
Worm A type of malware that spreads itself. The difference between a worm and a virus is that a virus needs to be run on a host computer to spread, while a worm is independent.
Antivirus (AV) A program that runs constantly in the background, scanning files on download, on access, or on a schedule
Anti-malware (AM) A program that runs on demand to check for residual PUPs or other issues.
Potentially Unwanted Program (PUP) A generic term for an application that may not be malicious but is not wanted/intended regardless.
## Disks/Storage
Term Definition
Hard Disk Drive (HDD) A storage device with spinning platters that is very cheap.
Solid State Drive (SSD) A storage device with no moving parts that is very fast.
Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks (RAID) A set of storage drives which are combined to make them larger, moroe reliable, or faster.
Master Boot Record (MBR) The partition table format that precedes GPT. Also called the DOS/MSDOS partition table.
GUID Partition Table (GPT) A newer (better) partition table.
Bit (b) A single 1 or 0 used by your computer.
Byte (B) 8 Bits
Kilobyte (KB) 1000 Bytes
Megabyte (MB) 1000 Kilobytes
Gigabyte (GB) 1000 Megabytes
Terabyte (TB) 1000 Gigabytes
Kibibyte (KiB) 1024 Bytes
Mebibyte (MiB) 1024 Kibibytes
Gibibyte (GiB) 1024 Mebibytes
Tebibyte (TiB) 1024 Gibibytes

Networking

Term Definition
Internet Protocol (IP) The primary protocol used to transfer data over the Internet.
IP address A series of numbers that identifies a computer on the Internet.
IPv4 address A format of IP addresses, consisting of 4 sets numbers from 0-255 (e.g. 10.15.1.58)
IPv6 address A format of IP addresses, consisting of 8 sets of hexadecimal numbers from 0-FFFF (e.g. fe80:3b71:ed9b:924e:f925:dfad:964a:5d26).
Domain Name System (DNS) The protocol that maps domains to IP addresses.

Other

Term Definition
Hexadecimal (hex) Base-16 numbers, consisting of digits 0-F.
Microsoft (MS/MSFT) The company that makes Windows and other products.
Return Merchandise Authorization (RMA) A return merchandise authorization (RMA), return authorization (RA) or return goods authorization (RGA) is a part of the process of returning a product to receive a refund, replacement, or repair during the product’s warranty period. Both parties can decide how to deal with it, which could be refund, replacement or repair.
## Commands

Universal

Shortcut Action
Ctrl + A Select All
Ctrl + C Copy
Ctrl + P Print
Ctrl + S Save
Ctrl + V Paste
Ctrl + X Cut
Ctrl + Z Undo
Ctrl + W Close tab (in most web browsers)
Alt + Tab Switch window
Alt + F4 Closes program
Alt + Space Window options
PrtScrn Takes a screenshot of your entire screen and saves it to your clipboard (paste in eg. mspaint)
Alt + PrtScrn Takes a screenshot of the active window and saves it to your clipboard (paste in eg. mspaint)
Home Go to the start of a page
End Go to the end of a page
PgUp Go up a page
PgDown Go down a page
Del Deletes everything in front of the marker, not behind like Backspace does
Ins In some programs, write over what you have already written if the marker is placed where there is already text
NumLock Toggles the numpad between numbers and arrows/navkeys

Windows-specific

Shortcut Action
WinKey + R Run a command
WinKey + E Start the explorer
WinKey + X Open the Quick Link menu, which contains links to tools such as Device Manager and Event Viewer.
WinKey + ArrowKeys Move a window around
Ctrl + Shift + Esc Opens Task Manager
These are just the major ones, [more here](https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/help/12445/windows-keyboard-shortcuts).

Linux-specific

Shortcut Action
Alt + Drag Moves windows, from any point, rather than just from the title bar
Ctrl + Shift + U Allows you to enter a 4-digit Unicode character code to type special characters
Ctrl + Shift + V Paste into a Terminal
Ctrl + Alt + T Opens a Terminal
Ctrl + Alt + (F1-F6) Allows you to enter TTY’s 1 through 6
Ctrl + Alt + F7 Allows you to enter TTY7, which is typically your GUI session.
Ctrl + Esc In XFCE, open the Whisker Menu
Super In Ubuntu Unity, open the Dash